بررسی بازشناسی هیجان چهره در افراد با علائم روان‌شناختی بر اساس پرسشنامه نشانگان روانی (SCL-90-R)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای روان شناسی بالینی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شیراز.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد روان‌شناسی بالینی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شیراز.

چکیده

مقدمه: در راستای نقش کلیدی بازشناسی هیجانِ چهره در تسهیل تعاملات اجتماعی و نتایج متناقض پژوهش‌های محدودی که در گذشته بازشناسی هیجان در چهره را در جمعیت سالم با علائم اختلال روانی ارزیابی کرده‌اند،  هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسیِ بازشناسی هیجان چهره در افراد با علائم اختلال روانی به صورتی که در مقیاس SCL-90-R فهرست شده، است. روش: حجم نمونه در این پژوهش 60 نفر است که شامل 31 فرد سالم با علائم اختلال روانی و 29 فرد سالم بدون علائم اختلال روانی به عنوان گروه مقایسه است. فهرست بازبینی شده 90 نشانه‌ای (SCL-90-R) را برای تعیین کیفیتِ سطح نشانگان روانی، استفاده شد و همچنین بازشناسی هیجان در چهره  به‌وسیله 42 تصویر از تصاویر هیجانِ چهره‌ای اکمن و فرایزن (1976) که 6 حالت هیجانی مختلف (غم، شادی، ترس، خشم، تنفر، تعجب) و همچنین حالت خنثی را بررسی می‌کرد، مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. یافته‌ها: یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر حاکی از آن است که افراد سالم با علائم افسردگی در بازشناسی حالت خنثی، تنفر و شادی عملکرد ضعیف‌تری داشتند، در حالی که افراد با علائم اضطراب عملکرد بهتری در بازشناسی هیجان ترس داشتند. نتیجه‌گیری: این یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهند که علائم بالینی متفاوتی که ناشی از عملکردهای شناختی و نوروبیولوژیکیِ زمینه‌ای متفاوت است، به شیوه‌ای متفاوت بر بازشناسی هیجان در چهره تأثیر می‌گذارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Investigation of Facial Affect Recognition in People with Psychological Symptoms Based on SCL-90-R Scale

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Mosavyan 1
  • Seyedeh Fereshteh Nejati 2
1 Phd student of Clinical psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University
2 M.A in clinical psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Considering the importance of facial emotion recognition in social interactions and the conflicting results of the previous studies that have evaluated the emotion recognition in healthy individuals with psychiatric symptom distress, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between facial emotion recognition and psychiatric symptom distress as indexed by the SCL-90-R scale. Method: The sample size was 60 that consisted of 31 subjects with clinical symptoms and 29 healthy individuals as the control group. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) Form was chosen to determine the level of psychiatric symptom distress, and the facial emotion recognition was examined by 42 images of facial emotion picture (Ekman & frieze,1976) that measured 6 different emotional states (sadness, happiness, fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and the neutral state). Findings: The results of data analysis indicated that the participants with depression symptoms had difficulty in recognizing disgust, happiness and neutral state; however, the participants with anxiety symptoms had better performance in recognizing fear. Conclusion: The findings indicated that different symptoms, which are due to different underlying neurobiological and cognitive functions, influence emotion recognition in different ways.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Facial affect recognition
  • Psychological distress
  • SCL-90-R
- Adolphs, R.; Damasio, H.; Tranel, D. & Damasio, A. R. (1996).“Cortical systems for the recognition of emotion in facial expressions”. Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 7678–7687.

- Beale, J. M. & Keil, F. C. (1995). “Categorical effects in the perception of faces”. Cognition, 57, 217–239.

- Biabangard, E. & javadi, F. (2004).“Mental health of adult and adolescent”.Tehran: Social welfare publication, (Persian).

- Borkovec, T. D.; Newman, M. G.; Pincus, A. L. & Lytle, R. (2002). “A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder and the role of interpersonal problems”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 288-298.

- Bouhuys, A. L.; Greets, E. & Mersch, P. P. (1997). “Relationship between perception of facial emotions and anxiety in clinical depression: does anxiety-related perception predict persistence of depression?”. Journal of Affect Disorder, 43(3), 213-23.

- Carpenter, K. M. & Hittner, J. B. (1995). “Dimensional characteristics of the SCL-90- R: evaluation of gender differences in dually diagnosed inpatients”. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 383-90.

- Clark, A. & Friedman, M. J. (1983). “Factor structure and discriminant validity of the SCL-90 in a veteran psychiatric population”.Journal of Personality Assessment, 47(4), 396-404.

- Csukly, G.; Gzobar, P.; Simon, L. & Takacs, B. (2008). “Basic emotions and psychological distress: association between recognition of facial expressions and Symptom Checklist-90 subscales”. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49, 177-183.

- Denham, S. A.; Mitchell-Copeland, J.; Strandberg, K.; Auerbach, S. & Blair, K. (1997). “Parental contributions to preschoolers’ emotional competence”. Direct and indirect effects. Motivation; Emotion, 21, 65–86.

- Derogatis, L. R. (1994). SCL-90-R; “Symptom checklist -90-R. National Computer System”. United States of America, 27, 32-45.

- Derogatis, L. R. & Cleary, P. A. (1977). “Factorial invariance across gender for the primary symptom dimensions of the SCL-90”. British Journal of Social Clinical Psychology, 16(4), 347-56.

- Domes, G.; Heinrichs, M.; Michel, A.; Berger, C. & Herpertz, S.C. (2007). “Oxytocin improves "mind-reading" in humans”. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 731-3.

- Eisenberg, N.; Gershoff, E. T.; Fabes, R. A.; Shepard, S. A.; Cumberland, A. J. & Losoya, S. H. (2001). “Mother’s emotional expressivity and children’s behavior problems and social competence”. Mediation through children’s regulation. Developmental Psychology, 37, 475–490.

- Eisenberg, N.; Zhou, Q.; Spinrad, T. L.; Valiente, C.; Fabes, R. A. & Liew, J. (2005). “Relations among positive parenting, children’s effortful control, and externalizing problems: A three-wave longitudinal study”. Child Development, 76, 1055–1071.

- Ekman, P. & Friesen, W.V. (1976). “Pictures of facial affect”. Palo Alto, C.A. Consulting Psychologists Press.

- Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1978). “Facial action coding system: A technique for the measurement of facial movement”. Palo Alto, C. A.  Consulting Psychologists Press.

- Fox, E. (2002). “Processing emotional facial expressions: the role of anxiety and awareness”. Cognitive and Affective Behavior, 2, 52–63.

- Fredman, L.; Weismann, M. M.;   Leaf, P. & Bruce, M. L. (1998). “Social functioning in community residents with depression and other psychiatric disorders: results on the New Haven Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study”. Journal of Affective Disorders, 15, 103-112.

- Fruzzetti, A. E. & Shenk, C. (2008). “Fostering validating responses in families”. Social Work in Mental Health, 6, 215–227.

- Goldman, M.; Marlow-O'Connor, M.; Torres, I. & Carter, C. S. (2008). “Diminished plasma oxytocin in schizophrenic patients with neuroendocrine dysfunction and emotional deficits” .Schizophrenia Research, 98, 247-55. 

- Gray, J. M.; Young, A. W.; Barker, W. A.; Curtis, A. & Gibson, D. (1997).“Impaired recognition of disgust in Huntington’s disease gene carriers”. Brain, 120, 2029–2038.

- Habibzadeh, A. (2000). “Normalization of Symptom Checklist 90 and investigation of mental health of students 15 to 18 years old of Qhom city in academic year 79-80”.Research project of research council of education organization in Qhom city, 35-40. (Persian).

- Hollander, E.; Novotny, S.; Hanratty, M.; Yaffe, R.; DeCaria, C. M. & Aronowitz, B. R. (2003). “Oxytocin infusion reduces repetitive behaviors in adults with autistic and Asperger's disorders”. Neuropsychology pharmacology, 28, 193-8. 

- Hooker, C. & Park, S. (2002). “Emotion processing and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia patients”. Psychiatry Research, 112(1), 41-50.

- Ihnen, G.; Penn, D.; Corrigan, P. & Martin, J. (1998). “Social Perception and social skill in schizophrenia”. Psychiatry Research, 80, 275-286.

- Izard, C.; Fine, S.; Schultz, D.; Mostow, A.; Ackerman, B. & Youngstrom, E. (2011). “Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk”. Psychological Science, 12, 18-23.

- Kessler, H.; Schwarze, M.; Filipic, S.; Traue, H.C. & von Wietersheim, J. (2006). “Alexithymia and facial emotion recognition in patients with eating disorders”. International Journal of Eat Disorder, 39, 245-51.

- Keyes, H. (2012). “Categorical perception effects for facial identity in robustly represented familiar and self-faces: The role of configural and featural information”. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 760–772.

- Krause, E. D.; Mendelson, T. & Lynch, T. R. (2003). “Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress: The mediating role of emotional inhibition”. Child Abuse, 27, 199–213.

- Linardatos, E. (2011). “Facial emotion recognition in Generalize anxiety disorder and depression: assessment for unique and common responses to emotion and neutrality. A dissertation submitted to Kent State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy”.

- Marsh, A. A.; Yu, H. H.; Pine, D. S. & Blair, R. J. (2010). “Oxytocin improves specific recognition of positive facial expressions”. Psychopharmacology, 209, 225-32.  

- Martin, F.; Baudouin, J.Y.; Tiberghien, G. & Franck, N. (2005). “Processing emotional expression andfacial identity in schizophrenia”. Psychiatry Research, 134 (1), 43-53.

- Mendlewicz, L.; Linkowski, P.; Bazelmans, C. & Philippot, P. (2005). “Decoding emotional facial expressions in depressed and anorexic patients”. Journal of Affective Disorders, 89, 195–199.

- Modahl, C.; Green, L.; Fein, D.; Morris, M.; Waterhouse, L. & Feinstein, C. (1998). “Plasma oxytocin levels in autistic children”. Biological Psychiatry, 43, 270-7. 

- Monk, C. S.; Grillon, C.; Baas, J. M.; McClure, E. B.; Nelson, E. E. & Zarahn, E. (2003). “A neuroimaging method for the study of threat in adolescents”. Developmental Psychobiology, 43, 359–366.

- Mueser,K.; Doonan, R.; Penn, D.; Blanchard, j.; Bellack, A. & Nishith, p. (1996).“Emotion recognition and social competence in chronic schizophrenia”. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 271-275.

- Mueser, K. T.; Doonan, R.; Penn, D. L.; Blanchard, J. J.; Bullockm, A. S. & Nishith, P. (1996). “Emotion recognition and social competence in chronic schizophrenia”. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(2), 271-5.

- Najarian, B. & Davoodi, A. (2001). “Construction and validation of Symptom Checklist 90-Revision”. Ahvaz Journal of education and psychology, 3 (2), 136-149.(Persian).

- Noorbalal, A.; Bagheri, A. & Kazemi, M. (1998). “The prevalence of mental disorder in Tehran”. Hakim, 2 (4), (Persian).

- Penn, D.; Spaulding, W.; Reed, D. & Sullivan, M. (1996). “The relationship of social cognition to ward behavior in chronic schizophrenia”. Schizophrenia Research, 20, 327-335.

- Penn, D. L.; Addington, j. & Pinkham, A. (2006) .“Social Cognitive impairments in Schizophrenia. A textbook of schizophrenia Washington:  American psychiatry Press, 261-274.

- Persad, S. M. & Polivy, J. (1993). “Differences between depressed and nondepressed individuals in the recognition of and response to facial emotional cues”. Journal ofAbnormal Psychology, 102, 358–368.

- Phillips, M. L.; Williams, L. M.; Heining, M.; Herba, C. M.; Russell, T. & Andrew, C. (2004). “Differential neural responses to overt and covert presentations of facial expressions offear and disgust”. NeuroImage, 21, 1484–1496.

- Pollak, S. D. & Kistler, D. J. (2002). “Early experience is associated with the development of categorical representations for facial expressions of emotion”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 9072–9076.

- Pollak, S. D. (2003). “Experience-dependent affective learning and risk for psychopathology in children”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1008, 102–111.

- Rauter, U. K.; Leonard, C. E. & Swett, C.P. (1996). “SCL-90-R factor structure in an acute, involuntary, adult psychiatric inpatient sample”. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52(6), 625 629.

- Rubin, L. H.; Carter, C. S.; Drogos, L.; Jamadar, R.; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, H. & Sweeney, J. A. (2011). “Sex-specific associations between peripheral oxytocin and emotion perception in schizophrenia”. Schizophrenia Research, 130, 266-70.  

- Sabatinelli, D.; Fortune, E. E.; Li, Q.; Siddiqui, A.; Krafft, C. & Oliver, W. T. (2011). “Emotional perception: Meta-analyses of face and natural scene processing”. NeuroImage, 54, 2524–2533.

- Sabatini, E.; Della Penna, S.; Franciotti, R.; Ferretti, A. & Zoccolotti, P (2009).  “Brain structures activated by overt and covert emotional visual stimuli”. Brain Research Bulletin, 79, 258–264.

- Schmitz, N.; Hartkamp, N.; Kiuse, J.; Franke, G.H. Reister, G. & Tress, W. (2000). “The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R): A German validation study”. Quall Life Research, 9(2), 185-93.

- Schneider, F.; Gur, R.C.; Koch, K.; Bakes, V.; Amunts, K.; Shah, N.J.; Bilker, W.; Gur, R. E. & Habel, U. (2006). “Impairment in the Specificity of emotion processing in Schizophrenia”. America Journal Psychiatry, 163, 442-447.

- Shenk, C. E.; Putnam, F. W. & Noli, J. G. (2013).“Predicting the accuracy of facial affect recognition: the interaction of child maltreatment and intellectual functioning”. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114, 229-242.

- Shipman, K. L.; Schneider, R.; Fitzgerald, M. M.  Sims, C.; Swisher, L. & Edwards, A. (2007). “Maternal emotion socialization in maltreating and non-maltreating families: Implications for children’s emotion regulation”. Social Development, 16, 268–285.

- Sprengelmeyer, R.; Rausch, M.; Eysel, U. T. & Przuntek, H. (1986). “Neural structures associated with recognition of facial expressions of basic emotions”. Biological Sciences, 265, 1927–1931.

- Sullivan, M. W.; Carmody, D. P. & Lewis, M. (2010). “How neglect and punitiveness influenceemotion knowledge”. Child Psychiatry; Human Development, 41, 285–298.

- Surcinelli, P.; Codispoti, M.; Montebarocci, O.; Rossi, N. & Baldaro, B. (2006). “Facial emotion recognition in trait anxiety”. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 110–117.

- Van de Riet, W. A.; Grezes, J. & de Gelder, B. (2009). “Specific and common brain regions involved in the perception of faces and bodies and the representation of their emotional expressions”. Social Neuroscience, 4, 101–120.

- Zack, M.; Toneatto, T. & Streiner, D.L. (1998). “The SCL-90 factor structure in comorbid substance abusers”. Journal of Substance Abuse, 10(1), 85-101.