اثربخشی آموزش حل مسئله اجتماعی بر مؤلفه های کفایت اجتماعی دانش آموزان قربانی قلدری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه روان‌شناسی دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تبریز

3 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی تربیتی دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

مقدمه: ازآنجاکه نقص در کفایت اجتماعی در دانش‌آموزان قربانی قلدری یکی از عوامل تشدید و تداوم قربانی شدن این افراد است و از طرفی مطالعات انجام‌شده، حاکی از تأثیر یادگیری حل مسئله بر ارتقا کفایت اجتماعی است، در این راستا هدف ازپژوهش حاضرتعیین اثربخشی آموزش برنامه حل مسئله اجتماعی طراحی‌شده بر مؤلفه‌های کفایت اجتماعی در دانش‌آموزان قربانی قلدری بود. روش: این پژوهش از نوع نیمه آزمایشی با طرح پیش‌آزمون ـ پس‌آزمون و گروه گواه بود. جامعه آماری موردمطالعه شامل کلیه دانش‌آموزان دبیرستان‌های دخترانه دوره اول شهر تبریز در سال تحصیلی 96 ـ 95 بود ونمونه آماری شامل 30 دانش‌آموز قربانی قلدری بود که به روش خوشه ای در چند مرحله انتخاب و به شیوه تصادفی در دو گروه 15 نفری آزمایش و گواه گمارده شدند.گروه آزمایش طی 8 جلسه تحت آموزش برنامه حل مسئله اجتماعی قرار گرفت. برای جمع آوری داده ها از مقیاس قربانی قلدری کالیفرنیا و مقیاس کفایت اجتماعی فلنراستفاده شد.داده ها به‌وسیله SPSS-16 با روش تحلیل کوواریانس مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته­ ها: یافته­های حاصل از این پژوهش نشان داد، آموزش برنامه حل مسئله اجتماعی طراحی‌شده بر کلیه مؤلفه‌های کفایت اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان قربانی قلدری، تأثیر معنی‌داری داشته است (001/0Pنتیجه ­گیری: ازآنجاکه نتایج، بیان گر اثربخشی برنامه طراحی‌شده در ارتقای کفایت اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان قربانی قلدری بود. پیشنهاد می‌شود برنامه آموزش حل مسئله اجتماعی به‌عنوان بخشی از دوره‌های آموزش ضمن خدمت متولیان درگیر بادانش‌آموزان، جهت ارتقای مهارت‌های مقابله ای دانش‌آموزان قربانی قلدری قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effectiveness of Social Problem Solving Training on the Components of Social competence in Students Victim of Bullying

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansoor Beirami 1
  • Touraj Hashemi 1
  • Mirmahmood Mirnasab 2
  • Leila Kolyaei 3
1 Professor of Psychology Group in Tabtiz University
2 Associate of Educational science Group in Tabtiz University
3 PhD Student of Educational Psychology in Tabtiz University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Because of The deficit in social competence in students victim of bullying One of the factors to aggravation and continuing victimization of those people, On the other hand, studies have shown the impact of learning problem solving on promoting social competence, The purpose of this research was determining of effectiveness social problem solving training program on the components of social competence inStudents victim of bullying. Methods This study was a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest with thecontrol group. The population studied included all the first period high school female students in Tabriz in the academic year 96-95. The research sample consisted of 30 students was a victim of bullying through multi-stage random cluster sampling of the selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group in 8 sessions were trained in social problem-solving program. For data collection used the social competence scale and victim of bullying California scale. The collected data were analyzed applying SPSS-16 software via ANCOVA method. Results: The finding of the present study demonstrated a significant positive impact of developed social problem solving training on all components of social competence students victim of bullying, (PConclusion: The results indicate the effectiveness of developed program to promote social competence on students victim of bullying. It is suggested that social problem solving training program as part of training courses for all Trustees involved with students to promote coping skills students victims of bullying.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • social problem solving
  • social competence
  • victims of bullying

ـ افروز، غ. قاسم‌زاده، س. تازیکی، ط و دلگشاد، آ (1392). «اثربخشی آموزش مهارت‌های تنظیم هیجان و حل مسئله برکفایت اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان با ناتوانی یادگیری». ناتوانی‌های یادگیری، تهران،24/3.6-24.

ـ احدی، ب؛ میرزایی، م؛ نریمانی، م و ابوالقاسمی، ع (1388). «تأثیر آموزش حل مسئله اجتماعی بر سازگاری و کفایت اجتماعی و عملکرد تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان کم رو». پژوهش د رحیطه کودکان‌ استثنایی، 9(3)، 202-218.

ـ سیف، ع (1389). روانشناسی پرورشی نوین، روانشناسی یادگیری و آموزش. تهران: نشر دوران.

ـ بیرامی، م؛ مرادی، ع (1385).تأثیر آموزش مهارت‌های اجتماعی بر کفایت اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان. فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی روان‌شناسی دانشگاه تبریز.سال 1-شماره 4. 67-47.

ـ پرندین، ش (1385). ساخت پرسشنامه کفایت اجتماعی و هنجاریابی آن در نوجوانان شهر تهران، پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد.

 

ـ شیری، ا؛ ولی پور، م و مظاهری، م (1392). مقایسه مهارت‌های اجتماعی و مشکلات روان‌شناختی در دانش‌آموزان قلدر، قربانی و عدم درگیر.فصلنامه روانشناسی تحولی: روانشناسان ایرانی، 10(38)، 201-210.

ـ کاظمی، ر؛ مومنی، س و کیامرثی، آ (1390). بررسی اثربخشی آموزش مهارت‌های زندگی بر کفایت اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان مبتلابه اختلال ریاضی. فصلنامه ناتوانی‌های یادگیری،1(1)،94-108.

ـ معتمدی، س؛ حاج بابایی، ح؛ بیگلریان، ا و فلاح سلوکایی، م (1391). تأثیر آموزش مهارت حل مسئله برافزایش کفایت اجتماعی نوجوانان دختر. فصلنامه پژوهش اجتماعی، سال 4، شماره 14. 29-18.

ـ نادری، ف؛ پاشا، غو مکوندی، ف (1386). تأثیر آموزش مهارت‌های اجتماعی بر سازگاری فردی ـ اجتماعی، پرخاشگری و ابراز وجود دانش‌آموزان دختر قربانی در معرض خطر. دانش و پژوهش در روانشناسی کاربردی،33، 62-37.

- Arghode, V. (2013). “Emotional and social intelligence competence: Implications for instruction”. International Journal of Pedagogies &Learning, 8(2), 66-77.

- Alduncin,N. Lynne,C. Huffman, M. Feldman, M. Loe (2014). Executive function is associated with social competence in preschool-aged children born preterm or full term, Early Human Development 90 (2014) 299–306.

- Arseneault, L. Bowes, L. and Shakoor, S. (2010). Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: ‘Much ado about nothing’? Psychological Medicine, 40, 717-729.

- Atik, G. (2013). Student and School Level Factors in Victimization of Middle School Students: AnEcological Perspective. Unpublished Thesis, Middle East Technical University.

- Atik, G. Guneri, O. Y. (2012). California bullying victimization scale: validity and reliability evidence for the Turkish middle school children.Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 1237 – 1241.

- Becker-Weidman, E. G. Jacobs, R. H. Reinecke, M. A. Silva, S. G. & March, J. S. (2010). Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 11-18.

Beauchamp,MH.(2010).An integrative framework for the developmentof social skills. Psychol Bull Jan,136(1),39–64.

Bondü, R. & Elsner, B. (2015).Justice sensitivity in childhood and adolescence.Social Development, 24, 420-441.

Bruyan, E. H. Cillessen, A. H. & Wissink, I. B. (2010).Associations of peer acceptance and perceived popularity with bullying and victimization in early adolescence.Journal of early adolescence, 30 (4), 543-566.

 

Cassidy,T.(2009). Bullying and victimisation in school children: the role of social identity, problem-solving style, and family and school context. SocPsycholEduc(2009) 12:63–76.
Cridland, EK. Jones, SC. Caputi,P. Magee CA. Being a girl in a boy’s world: investigating the experiences of girls with autism spectrum disorders during adolescence. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014;44:1261–74.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Morbidity and mortality week report- youth risk behavior surveillance.

Chapanar, T. (2015).Predicting Resilience from Prior Bully Victimization from Middle Adolescent Students.Unpublished thesis, Kent State University Honors College.

Darmawan. (2010). Bullying in school:A study of Forms and Motives of Aggression in Two Secondary Schools in the city of Palu, Indonesia. Unpublished thesis.University of Troms.

Deniz,M,E. Ersoy,E.(2016).Examining the Relationship of Social Skills, Problem Solving and Bullying in Adolescents.International online Journal of Educational Sciences. 8 (1), 1-7

D’Zurilla, T. J. &Nezu, A. (1982).Social problem-solving in adults.In P. C. Kendall (Ed), Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy. 201-274.New York: Academic Press.

 

D'Zurilla TJ, Sheedy CF.(1991) Relation between social problem-solving ability and subsequentlevel of psychological stress in college students. J Personal Soc Psychol.61(5).85-89.
D'zurilla TJ, Chang EC, Sanna LJ.(2003). Self-esteem and social problem solving as predictors ofaggression in college students. JSoc Clin Psychol.22(4):424-40.

Dong, H. Choi Juhu, K(2003).Practicing Social Skills Training for Young Children with Low Peer Acceptance: A Cognitive-Social Learning Model Early Childhood Education Journal, 31(1). 41-46.

DeRosier, M. E. (2004). Building Relationships and Combating Bullying: Effectiveness of a School-Based Social Skills Group Intervention. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), 196–201.

Duong, M. T. (2011). Associations between Social Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Mexican American and Vietnamese American Early Adolecents.Unpublished thesis.University of Southern California.

 Espelage,D,. Swearer,M.S(2003). Bullying in American Schools: A Social-Ecological Perspective on Prevention and Intervention Hardcover.

Espelage, D. & low, S. M. (2012).Bullying among children and adolescents: Social-emotional learning approaches to prevention. In K. Nader (Ed.), School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances: Early Prevention Interventions. 205- 219. New York: Routledge.

Espelage, D. L. & Holt, M. K. (2013). Suicidal ideation and school bullyingexperiences after controlling for depression and delinquency.Journal ofAdolescent Health, 53(1), S27-S31.

Espelage, D. L. (2011).Bullying in North American schools. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Erin. E. O’Connor, Elise Cappella, Meghan P. McCormick, and Sandee G. McClowry(‎2014), Enhancing the Academic Development of Shy Children:A Test of the Efficacy of INSIGHTSSchool Psychology Review,43(3). 239–259

Eşkisu,M (2014). The Relationship between Bullying, Family Functions and Perceived Social Support Among High School StudentsProcedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 159 (2014) 492 – 496.

Felix, E. D. Sharkey, J. D. Green, J. G. Furlong, M. J. & Tanigawa, D. (2011).Getting precise and pragmatic about the assessment of bullying: The development of the California Bullying Victimization Scale.Aggressive Behavior, 37, 234-247.

 Felix,E. Furlong.M. Austin,G.(2009). A Cluster Analytic Investigation of School Violence Victimization Among Diverse Students. Journal of interpersonal violence.(37),3-17.

Flener, R. D. & Lease, A. M. (1990). Social competence and the language of adequacy matter for psychology.

Fraser,L. Wike, T. L. (2013). Promoting social competence and preventing childhood aggression: A framework for applying social information processing theory in intervention research, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18 (2013), 357–364.

Fraser MW, Galinsky MJ, Smokowski PR, Day SH, Terzian MA, Rose RA, Guo S. (2005). Social information-processing skills training to promote social competence and prevent aggressive behavior in the third grades.J Consult Clin Psychol;73(6):1045-55.

Fox,C. Boulton.M.(2006).Evaluating the effectiveness of a social skills training (SST) programme for victims of bullying Educational Research.45(3).

Heppner.P.(2004).Self-appraised problem-solving ability, affective states, and psychological distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol 42(1), 105-115.

Hoyt, P.(2006) Problem Solving for Better Health: a working approach to the developmentand dissemination of applied research in developing countries. Appl Nurs Res. 2006 May;19(2):110-2;

Huitsing, G. Van Duijn, A. J. Snijders, A. B. Wang, P. Sainio, M. Salmivalli, C. &Veenstra, R. (2012). Univariate and multivariate models of positive and negative network:Veenstra,LikingT disliking and bully- victim relationships. Elsevier B. V. all rights reserved.

Hutzell, K. L. and Payne, A. A.(2012). The Impact of Bullying Victimization on School Avoidance.Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 10(4), 370-385.

Hazler, R. J. (1996). Breaking the cycle of violence:Interventions for bullying andvictimization.Washington, DC: Accelerated Development.

Hong JS, Lee CH, Lee J, Lee NY, Garbarino J(2014).A review of bullying prevention and intervention in South Korean schools: an application of the social-ecological framework.Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 45(4):433-42.
Haslam, S. A. Jetten, J. O’Brien, A. & Jacobs, E. (2004). Social identity, social influence and reactions to potentially stressful tasks: Support for the self categorization model of stress. Stress and Health, 20, 3–9.

 Hartley,M. Bauman,SH. Nixon,C. Davis,S.(2015). Comparative Study of Bullying Victimization Among Students in General and Special Education.Journal of Exceptional children.(45),17-30.

Hirsch, J. K. Chang, E. C. & Jeglic, E. L. (2012). Social problem-solving and suicidal behavior: Ethnic differences in the moderating effects of loneliness and life stress. Archives of Suicide Research, 16(4), 303–315.

Hymel, Sh. Swearer, S. M.(2015). Four decades of research on school bullying: An introduction.American Psychologist, 70(4), 293-299.

Holt, M.K. &Espelage, D.L. (2007).Perceived social support among bullies, victims and bully-victims.Journal Youth Adolescence, (36), 984-994.

Isaksen, S. G. & Treffinger, D. J. (1992). Creative problem solving: Threecomponents and six specific stages. Instructional handout. Buffalo, NY:Center for Studies in Creativity

Isaksen.S.G & Dorval,K,B.(1992). Changing views of CPS:Over 40 years of continuous improvement. International Creativity Network,3,1-5.

Isaksen.S.G & Dorval,K,B& Treffinger, D. J.(1994).Creative approaches to problem solving.Dubuque,Iowa:Kendall,Hunt.
Isaksen.S.G & Dorval,K,B& Treffinger, D. J.(1998).Toolbox for Creative problem solving:Basic tools and resources.Williamsville,NY:CPSB.

Isaksen.S.G & Dorval,K,B& Treffinger, D. J.(2000).Creative approaches to problem solving:A framework for change. Dubuque,Iowa:Kendall.Hunt.

Ju,ch, zhao a, Zhang a, Deng,j (2015). Effects of fathering style on social problem-solving among Chinese teenagers: The roles of masculine gender stereotypes and identity Personality and Individual Differences.77 (2015) 124–130.

Kokkinos, C. M. & Kipritsi, E.(2012). The relationship between bullying, victimization, trait emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and empathy among preadolescents.Social Psychology of Education, 15(1) 41-58.

Kochenderfer,B,L,Visconti,K,J & Clifford,C,A.(2013).Children's attributions for peer victimization: A social comparison approach.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology.34(6), 277–287.

Kirkovski M, Enticott PG, Fitzgerald PB.(2013).A review of the role of femalegender in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord.43(11):2584–603. 

Kim, Y. S. Boyce, T. Koh, Y.J. & Leventhal, B. (2009). Time trends, trajectories, and demographic predictors of bullying: a prospective study in Koreanadolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, (45), 360-367.

Kristi.K.(2012)Social Skills Training as a mean of improving intervention forbullies and victims,Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences.45. 239 – 246.

Ladd, G. W. Kochenderfer, B. J. and Coleman, C. C. (1997), Classroom Peer Acceptance, Friendship, and Victimization: Destinct Relation Systems That Contribute Uniquely to Children's School Adjustment? Child Development, 68: 1181–1197.

Lang, N. C. (2010). Group work practice to advance social competence: Aspecialized methodology for social work. New York: Columbia UniversityPress.

Leutner, D. Fleischer, J. Wirth, J. Greiff, S. & Funke, J. (2012). Analytische unddynamische Problemlösekompetenz im Lichte internationalerSchulleistungsvergleichsstudien [Analytical and dynamic problem-solvingcompetencefrom an international educational studies perspective].PsychologischeRundschau, 63(1), 34–42.

McMurran, M. Nezu, C. Nezu, A. Morgan, C. & Bhugra, D. (2012).Problem solving for personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 423–431.

Mendez, J. Bauman, Sh,Sulkowski, L. Davis, S; Nixon, Charisse(2016). Racially-focused peer victimization: Prevalence, psychosocial impacts, and the influence of coping strategies. Psychology of Violence, 6(1), 103-111.

Meiner,A, Greiff,S, Gidon T. F,Ricarda,S. (2016). Predicting Complex Problem Solving and school grades with working memory and ability self-concept, Learning and Individual Differences 49 (2016) 323–331.

Monahan, K. (2008). The development of social competence from early childhood through middle adolescence: continuity and accentuation of individual differences over time, unpublished doctoral Dissertation.

Nansel, T. R. Overpeck, M. Pilla, R. S. Ruan, J.Simons-Morton, B. & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among U.S. youth: Prevalence and associationwith psychosocial adjustment. Journal ofthe American Medical Association, (285), 2094–2100

Napoca, C. (2015). Bullying victimization and mental health: risk and protective factors.Unpublished thesis.Babeș-BolyaiUniversity.

Narayanan, A. and Betts, L. R. (2014). Bullying Behaviors and Victimization Experiences Among Adolescent Students: The Role of Resilience. The Journal of Genetic Psychology,175(2), 134–146.

Navarro, N. Yubero, S. Larrañaga, E. &Martínez. V. (2012). Children’s Cyberbullying Victimization: Associations with Social Anxiety and Social Competence in a Spanish SampleChild Indicators Research, Volume 5. pp 281-295.

Olweus, D. (1997). Bully/victim problems in school: Facts and intervention. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 7495–510.

 

Olweus, D. (1994). What we know and what we can do. New York:Wiley-Blackwell.
Oliver, C. &Candappa, M. (2007).Bullying and the Politics of Telling. Oxford Review of Education, 33(1), 71- 86.

Olga L. Walker a.Kathryn A. Degnan a, Nathan A. Fox a, Heather(2013) A. Social problem solving in early childhood: Developmental change and the influence of shyness. Henderson Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology(34) 185–193

Osborn,A,F.(1963).How to become more creative:101 rewarding ways to develop potential talent.New York:Scribners.

Osborn,A,F.(1967).Applied imagination:Principles and procedures of creative problem solving.NewYork:Charles Scribner.s Sons.

Parnes,S,J.(1976).Manual for institutes and programs.Buffalo,NY:Creative Education Foundation.

Parnes,S,J.(1967).Creative behavior guidebook.New York:Scribners.

Parnes,S,J.(1977).Creative behavior guidebook.New York:Scribners.

Papanikolaou, M. Chatzikosma, T. &Kleio, K. (2011).Bullying at school: Therole of family. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 433-442.

Reitz, S. (2012).Improving social competence via E-learning? The exampleof human rights education. Frankfurt: Lang, Peter, GmbH,InternationalerVerlag der Wissenschaften.

 

Ruggieri, S. Friemel, T. Sticca, F. Perren, S. & Alsaker, F. (2013). Selectionand Influence Effects in fending a Victim of Bullying: The ModeratingEffects of School Context. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 79,117-126.
Rose-Krasnor, L. (1997). The Nature of Social Competence: A Theoretical Review. Journal of Social Development. 6 (1), 111-135.

Sinio, M. (2013) being bullied by same-versus other sex peers: Does it matter for Adolescent victims?Journal of clinical child & Adolescent psychology, 42, 1-13.

Shalley, C. E. (2007). Team cognition: The importance of team process andcomposition for the creative problem-solving process.Research in Multi-Level Issues, 7, 289-304.

Sokol, N. Bussey, K. Rapee, M. R.(2015). The effect of victims' responses to overt bullying on same-sex peer bystander reactions.Journal of School Psychology, 53.375–391.

Sokol, N. Bussey, K. Rapee, M. R. (2016). The impact of victims' responses on teacher reactions to bullying.Teaching and Teacher Education 55 (2016) 78-87.

Sanders, C.E. and Phye,G. D. (2004). Bullying Implications for The Classroom. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Salmivalli, C. Karhunen, J. & Lagerspetz, K. M. J. (1996a). How do the victims respond to bullying? Aggressive Behavior, 22, 99–109.

Salmivalli, C. Kaukiainen, A. & Voeten, M. (2005). Anti-bullying intervention: Implementation and outcome. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75465–487.

Salmivalli, C. Lagerspetz, K. Björkqvist, K. Österman, K. & Kaukiainen, A. (1996b). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social statuswithin the group.Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1–15.

Salmivalli, C. & Voeten, M. (2004).Connections between attitudes, group norms, and behavior in bullying situations.International Journal of Behavioral Development,28, 246–258.

Scott, G. Leritz, L. E. & Mumford, M. D. (2004). The effectiveness ofcreativity training: A quantitative review. Creativity Research Journal, 16(4), 361-388.

Sylvia Y.C.L. Kwok, Jerf W.K. Yeung, Andrew Y.T. Low, Herman H.M. Lo, Cherry H.L. Tam. (2015). The roles of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the relationship between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation in China, Child Abuse & Neglect 44 (2015) 117–129.

Tracy L. Desjardins, Bonnie J. Leadbeater (2011). Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Volume 40, Issue 5,pp 531-544.

Undheim, Anne Mari; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari (2016). Coping Strategies and Associations With Depression Among 12- to 15-Year-Old Norwegian Adolescents Involved in Bullying Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease: 4(30). 274–279.

Visconti, K. J. B. K. Ladd and Clifford, C.A. (2013). Children's attributions for peer victimization: A social comparison approach. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 277-287.

Volk, A. Camilleri, J. Dane, A. & Marini, Z. (2012a). If, when, and why bullying is adaptive. In T. Shackelford & V. Shackelford (Eds.), Oxford handbook of evolutionary perspectives on violence, homicide, and war (270–288). Toronto, ON: Oxford University Press.

Wade, E. L. (2007). Resilient Victims of School Bullying: Psychological Correlates of Positive Outcomes. Unpublished thesis.RMIT University.

Walker, K.L, Chang, E. C. Hirsch, J. K. (2016). Neuroticism and Suicidal Behavior: Conditional Indirect Effects of Social Problem Solving and Hopelessness. Int J Ment Health Addiction,648-634.

Whitman, C. Gottdiener, W. H. (2015) Implicit Coping Styles as a Predictor of Aggression Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma,  24,77-120.

Williford, A. Boulton, A. Noland, B. Little, T. D. Kärnä, A. and Salmivalli, C. (2012).Effects of the KiVa Anti-bullying Program on Adolescents’ Depression, Anxiety, and Perception of Peers. Journal of Abnorm Child Psychol, 40:289–300.

Xu Jiang, Michael D. Lyons, E. Scott Huebner. (2016). An examination of the reciprocal relations between life satisfaction and social problem solving in early adolescents, Journal of Adolescence,53 (2016).141-151.
Yüksel-Şahina.(2015).An Examination of Bullying Tendencies and Bullying CopingBehaviors among AdolescentsProcedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (191), 214 – 221.