مقایسه صفات شخصیت و پذیرش – تعهد در میان متأهلین دارای سبک شناختی جذب‏کننده و سبک شناختی کاوش کننده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی

3 دانشیار روانشناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی و مدیر گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی

4 استادیار گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران

چکیده

مقدمه: با توجه به اهمیت سبک شناختی در نحوه­ی نگرش و زندگی افراد و ارتباط آن با شخصیت و تجربه­ی هیجانات، هدف از پژوهش حاضر مقایسه صفات شخصیت و پذیرش- تعهد در میان متأهلین دارای سبک شناختی جذب‏کننده و سبک شناختی کاوش‏کننده بود. روش: پژوهش حاضر از نوع علی- مقایسه­ای بود. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را کلیه بزرگسالان ساکن شهر بابل تشکیل دادند و در انتخاب نمونه­ی پژوهشی 130 زن و مرد بزرگسال متأهل به شیوه نمونه­گیری دردسترس انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده­ها از مقیاس سبک شناختی A-E (مارتینس، 1995)، پرسشنامه شخصیتی 5 عاملی نئو (NEO-FFI) و پرسشنامه پذیرش و عمل هیز و همکاران (2004) استفاده گردید. برای تحلیل داده­ها از آزمون تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیری استفاده شد. یافته­ها: نتایج نشان داد که دو سبک شناختی کاوش‏کننده و جذب‏کننده از نظر صفات شخصیتی روان رنجورخویی، انعطاف­پذیری و وظیفه­شناسی و از نظر میزان پذیرش/ تعهد دارای تفاوت معناداری با یکدیگر هستند ولی در صفات شخصیتی برون­گرایی و دلپذیری تفاوت معناداری بین آنها دیده نشد. نتیجه­گیری: بطور کلی می­توان نتیجه گرفت که نحوه پردازش کردن اطلاعات و برخورد شناختی افراد با مسائل می­تواند منجر به گرایش یافتن به سمت صفات شخصیتی و تفاوت در پذیرش یا اجتناب تجربی آنان بشود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of personality Traits and Acceptance - Commitment among Married People with Assimilator Cognitive Style and Explorer Cognitive Style

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Rasoli 1
  • Mojtaba Dehghan 2
  • Mohamad Hossin Abdollahi 3
  • Mahnaz Sahgholyan 4
چکیده [English]

Introduction: People's cognitive style is important in their attitudes and lives. Besides, it is associated with their personalities and experience of emotions. Therefore, the aim of this study was comparing the personality traits and acceptance/commitment among married people with Assimilator cognitive style and Explorer cognitive style. Method: The design was causal-comparative and the population of the study consisted of all adults that were living in Mazandaran city, and among them 130 married men and women (65 women and 65 men) were selected as sample through available sampling method. To collect data, the Scale of Cognitive Style, five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI) and second edition of Accepting and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance was used. Results: The results showed that people with Explorer Cognitive Style and Assimilator Cognitive Style were significantly different in terms of personality traits of neuroticism, flexibility and conscientiousness and also were significantly different in terms of the degree of acceptance/commitment. However, there was no significant difference between two cognitive styles in terms of extraversion and openness to experience. Conclusion: Thus, the way people process information and also their Cognitive confrontation with problems can lead to tendency toward specific personality traits and differences in their acceptance or experimental avoidance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive Style
  • Assimilator
  • Explorer
  • Five Factor Personality
  • Acceptance and Commitment

- Abbasi, I.; Fata, L.; Moloudi, R. & Zarabi, H. (2013). Psychometric adequacy of the Persian version of Acceptance and acting questionnaire - Second Edition. JPMM, 3(10): 65-80. [persian]

- Amanelahi, A.; Heydarianfar, N.; Khojastehmehr, R. & Imani, M. (2014). “Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in the Treatment of Distressed Couples”. Biannual Journal of Applied Counseling, 4 (1): 103-119. [persian]

- Azimifar, S.; Fatehizadeh, M.; Bahrami, F.; Ahmadi, A. & Abedi, A. (2016). “Comparing the Effects of Cognitive- Behavioral Couple Therapy & Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Marital Happiness of Dissatisfied Couples”. Shenakht Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 3, 2: 56-81. [persian] 

- Basharpoor, S.; Shafiei, M. & Daneshvar, S. (2015). “The Comparison of Experimental Avoidance, Mindfulness and Rumination in Trauma-Exposed Individuals with and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in an Iranian Sample”. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 29: 279–283. [persian]

- Behrouz, B.; Mohammadi, F.; Aliabadi, Sh.; Kajbaf, M. B.; Heidarizadeh, N. & Behrouz, B. (2014). “A Comparison between Personality Traits and Attribution Styles of Normal Couples and Divorce Petitioners”. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 15, 1 (55): 52-61. [persian]

- Behrouz, B.; Mohammadi, F.; alihabadi, S.; Kajbaf, M. B.; Haidarizadeh, N. & Behrouz, B. (2014). “A Comparison between Personality Traits and Attribution Styles of Normal Couples and Divorce Petitioners”. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 3, 15 (55): 52-61. [persian]

- Beyrami, M.; Hashemi Nosrat abad, T.; Alizadeh Goradel, J. & Alizadeh, H. (2012). “Prediction of social problem solving ability of students based on their cognitive styles”. Social Cognition, 1(1): 77-84. [persian]

- Cakı, N.; Asfuroglu, L. & Erbas, O. (2015). “The Relationship between the Level of Attachment in Romantic Relations, Affective Commitment and Continuance Commitment towards Organization: A Field Research”. Procedia Economics and Finance, 26: 1007 – 1013.

- Cheung, F. M.; Cheung, S. F.; Zhang, J.; Leung, K.; Leong, F. & Huiyeh, K. (2008). “Relevance of openness as a personality dimension in chinese culture: Aspects of its cultural relevance”. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 39, 81-108.

- Cheung, F. M.; Van de Vijver, F. J. R. & Leong, F. T. L. (2011). “Toward a new approach to the study of personality in culture”. American Psychologist, 66 (7): 593-603.

- Corr, P. J. (2008). The reinforcement sensitivity theory. In P. J. Corr (Ed). The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

- Delavare, A. (2002). Research Methodology in Psychology and Science Education. Fourth Edition. Tehran: Publication Virayesh. [persian]

- Diseth. A. & Martinsen, Ø. L. (2003). “Approaches to Learning, Cognitive Style, and Motives as Predictors of Academic Achievement”. Educational Psychology, 23(2), 195-208.

- Fincham, F. D. (1994). “Cognition in Marriage: And Future Challenges Current Status”. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 3, 185-198.

- Forman, E. M. & Herbert, J. D. (2008). New directions in cognitive behavior therapy: acceptance based therapies, chapter to appear in w. o’donohue, je. Fisher, (Eds), cognitive behavior therapy: Applying empirically supported treatments in your practice, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 3(1): 263-265.

- Garnefski, N.; Baan, N. & Kraaij, V. (2005). “Psychological distress and cognitive emotion regulation strategies among farmers who fell victim to the foot-andmouth crisis”. Pers Individ Dif, 38(6): 1317-1327.

- Garoosi Fareshi, M. T.; Mehryar, A. H. & Ghazi Tabatabaee, M. (2001). “Application of the NEOP I - R Test and analytic Evaluation of its characteristics and factorial struchure among Iranian university student”. Journal of Human Sciences Alzahra, 11 (39): 173-198. [persian]

- Ghotbi-varzaneh, A.; Zarghami, M.; Saemi, E. & Maleki. (2012). “The Effect of Cognitive Styles on Accuracy: The Role of Working Memory”. Development & Motor Learning, 4(2): 61-78. [persian]

- Griffin, A.S.; Guillette, L.M. & Healy, S.D. (2015). “Cognition and personality: an analysis of an emerging field”. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 30(4): 207–214.

- Hakimi, C.; Hejazi, E. & Lavasani, Gh. (2015). “A Study of the Relationships between Cognitive styles and Personality Traits with Academic Achievement in Tehran University Students”. Journal of Personality & Individual Differences, 3(6): 1-25.

- Harris, R. (2006). “Embracing your demons: An overview of aceeptance and commitment therapy”. Psychotherap Aust,21(4),2-8.

- Hashemi, S. (2011). “A Study of the Role of Personality Traits and Cognitive Styles in Approaching and Avoiding Arguments”. JMPR, 6(22), 171-196.

- Hayes, S. C. & Strosahl, K. D. (2010). A practical Quide to Acceptance and commitment therapy. New York: Springer Science and Business Media Inc.

- Hayes, S. C.; Strosahl, K. D. & Wilson, K. (2004). “Measuring experiential avoidance: A preliminary test of a working model”. Psychological record, 54: 553−578.

- Hong, J.C.; Hwang, M.Y.; Tam, K.P.; Lai, Y.H. & Liu, L.C. (2012). “Effects of cognitive style on digital jigsaw puzzle performance: A GridWare analysis”. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3): 920-928.

- Hosseini, A.; Zahrakar, K.; Davarniya, R.; Shakarami, M. & Mohammadi, B. (2015). “The Relationship between Marital Commitment with Personality Traits”. Bimonthly Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, 22, 5: 787-796. [persian]

- Hosseni Nasab. D.; Roeen, H. & Soltanoghorabi, K. (2006). “Study of cognitive styles (learning styles) personality factors students of Tabriz University”. Journal of Tabriz University, 1 (2 & 3): 77-114. [persian]

- Hossieni, Z.; Kholghi, Z.; Jaberi, S.; Sedighi, A.; Salehi, V.; Tafvizi, M.; Jazayeri, R. S. & Fatehi Zadeh, M. S. (2013). “Comparison of conflicting couples' personality traits and normal using NEO Personality Inventory 5 factors”. Scientific Journal of Forensic, 19(1 & 4): 165-173. [persian]

- Karekla, M. & Panayiotou, G. (2011). “Coping and experiential avoidance: Unique or overlapping constructs”? Journal of Behaviot Therapy and Experiential Psychiatry, 42, 163-170.

- Kashdan, T. B.; Breen, W. E.; Afram, A. & Terhar, D. (2010). “Experiential avoidance in idiographic, autobiographical memories: Construct validity and links to social anxiety, depressive, and anger symptoms”. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 528-534.

- Keshavarz, M.; Jafari, A.; Salahshor, M., Vaziri, S. A. (2013). Study of the Relationships between Cognitive styles, Personality Traits and Academic Achievement. Journal of Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, 1(1): 11-19. [persian]

- Khanzadeh, M.; Edrisi, F.; Muhammadkhani, SH. & Sa’idian, M. (2013). “Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of Emotional Schema Scal”. Journal of Clinical Psychology Studies, 3(11): 91-119. [persian]

- Khodarahimi, S. & Rasti, A. (2015). “The roles of fatigue, depression, and Big Five Personality traits in males with and without multiple sclerosis disease”. Clínica y Salud, 26(2): 91–96. [persian]

- Larry, W. Tyndall.& James, W. (1985). “Spouses' cognitive styles and marital interaction patterns”. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 11(2), 193–202.

- Li, M.L. & Armstrong, S.J. (2015). “The relationship between Kolb's experiential learning styles and Big Five personality traits in international managers”. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 422–426.

- Ling, ch., Salvendy, g. (2009). “Effect of evaluators’ cognitive style on heuristic evaluation: Field dependent and field independent evaluators”. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67(4): 382-393.

- Martinsen, Ø. L & Age Diseth. (2011). “The Assimilator–Explorer Cognitive Styles: Factor Structure, Personality Correlates, and Relationship to Inventiveness”. Creativity Research Journal, 23 (3): 273-283,

- Martinsen, Ø. L. (1995). “Cognitive styles and experience in solving insight problems: Replication and extension”. Creativity Research Journal, 8, 291–298.

- Martinsen, Ø. L. & Diseth, A. (2011). “The factor structure of the Assimilator–Explorer Inventory-revised”. Creativity Research Journal, 23, 273–283.

- Martinsen, Ø. L., Furnham, A. (2015). “Cognitive styles and performance on complex, structured tasks”. Learning and Individual Differences, 42, 106–109

- Moosavi, M. S.; Rashidi, A. & Golmahammadian, M. (2016). “Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on increasing marital satisfaction of the veteran and freedman wives”. Biannual Journal of Applied Counseling, 5 (2), 97-112. [persian]

- Morgan, B. (2008). “The relationship between the big five personality trait and burnout in south African university students”. [Dissertation], Magister Artium in Psychology, faculty of humanities, University of Johannesburg.

- Nabizade Asl, D. & Mirzaei, M. (2016). “The Relationship between Cognitive Insight, Life Style and Marital Satisfaction among the Students of Urmia Islamic Azad University”. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6(2): 51-54

- Naimie, Z.; Abuzaid, R. A.; Siraj, S.; Shagholi, R. & Hejaili, H.A. (2010). “Do you know where I can find the new center which is called “Cognitive styles and language learning strategies link”? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2): 497-500. [persian]

- Ng, A. K.; Ho, D. Y.; Wong, S. S. & Smith, I. (2003). “In search of the good life: A cultural odyssey in the East and West”. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 19(4): 317-363.

- Nikogoftar, M. (2007). “Reletionship between stepwise of values and general health”. Psychological Research, 10(1 & 2): 79-92. [persian]

- Ozura, A.; Ihan, A. & Musek, J. (2010). “Can the big five factors of personality predict lymphocyte counts”? Psychiatria Danubina, 24 (1): 66-72.

- Peterson, B. D.; Eifert, G. H.; Feingold, T. & Davidson, S. (2009). “Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Treat Distressed Couples: A Case Study WITH Two Couples”. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 430–442. [persian]

- Petrides, K.V. & Furnham, A. (2003). “Trait emotional intelligence: Behavioral validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction”. European Journal of Personality, 17, 39-57.

- Pourfaraj Omran, M. (2011). “The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy in Social Phobia of Students”. Knowledge & Health, 6(2): 1-5. [persian]

- Rajabi, S. & Yazdkhasti, F. (2014). “The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commit­ment Group Therapy on Anxiety and Depression in Women with MS Who Were Referred to the MS Association”. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 3. 6 (1): 29-38. [persian]

- Ridding, R. & Cheema, I. (1991). “Cognitive Styles: An Overview and Integration”. Educational Psychology, 11(3/4), 193– 216.

- Roberts, M. J. & Newton, E. J. (2001). “Understanding Strategy Selection”. Intern­ati­onal Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 54, 137 – 154.

- Rogoff, L. (2013). “The Influence of Family Communication Patterns, Marital Typology, and Level of Intimacy on Marital Satisfaction for Couples Living in the United States”. Individual & family studies. Walden University, 166; 3551404.

- Roshan Chesly, R. (2006). “Investigate psycho­metric characteristics of 5-Factor Personality Inventory NEO (NEO-FFI)”. Daneshvar Raftar, 16, 27-36. [persian]

- Sabatelli, R. M. (1982). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Family Relations. (Washington, DC, October 13-16, 1982).

- Sadock, B.J. & Sadock, V.A. (2001). Kaplan & Sadock Synopsis of Psychiatry (translated by: F: Rezaee). Tehran: Arjmand. p: 323-5.

- Schulte, M.J.; Ree, M.J. & Carretta, T.R. (2004). “Emotional intelligence: not much more than g and personality”. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1059-1068.

- Smith, E. S. (2001). “The relationship between learning style and cognitive style”. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 77, 434-445.

- Soliemanifar O.; Behroozi N. & Safaei Moghaddam M. (2015). “Role of Personality Traits, Learning Styles and Metacognition in Predicting Critical Thinking of Underg­raduate Students”. Bimonthly of Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, 8(1):59-67.

- Statistical Center of Iran. (2005). “The statistical annals of the country. Producer: President, Management and Planning Organization”. Publication: Tehran, Office of the President, Public Relations and International Cooperation.

- Sternberg, R. J.; Grigorenko, E. L. & Zhang, L. (2008). “Styles of learning and thinking matter in instruction and assessment”. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 486–506.

- Swider, B. W., & Zimmerman, R. D. (2010). “Born to burnout: A meta- analytic path model of personality, job burnout and work outcomes”. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76 (3): 487-506.

- Tang, J. H.; Chen, M. C. H.; Yang, CH. Y.; Chung, T. Y. & Lee, Y. A. (2016). “Personality traits, interpersonal relationships, online social support, and Facebook addiction”. Telematics and Informatics, 33, 102–108

- Tanwir, U. H.; Aditya, K. S. & Banshi, D. (2010). “An investigation of relationship between learning styles and performance of learners”. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 2(7): 2813-2819.

- Walser, R. D.; Garvert, D.W.; Karlin, B.E.; Mickey Trockel, M.; Ryu, D.M. & Taylor, C.B. (2015). “Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in treating depression and suicidal ideation in Veterans”. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 74, 25-31

- Watson, D. & Hubbard, B. (1996). “Adaptational style and dispositional structure: coping in the context of the Five-factor model”. Journal of Personality, 64, 735-774.

- Yan, J. H. (2010). “Cognitive styles affect choice response time and accuracy”. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(6): 747-751.

- Zaree Mahmmod Abad, H. (2013). “Investigate the relationship between attachment styles and personality traits as predictors of divorce tendency ordinary couples in divorce applicant”. Journal of Family Counseling & Psychotherapy, 2 (4): 554-571. [persian].