مقایسه شناخت اجتماعی و بازشناسی هیجان چهره‌ای در بیماران مبتلا به اسکیزوفرنی تازه تشخیص و مزمن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه روان شناسی، دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشجوی دکتری روان شناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

مقدمه: هدف پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه شناخت اجتماعی و بازشناسی هیجان چهره­ای در بیماران مبتلا به اسکیزوفرنی تازه تشخیص و مزمن بود. روش: پژوهش حاضر از نوع علی- مقایسه­­ای است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل تمامی بیماران مبتلا به اسکیزوفرنی بستری و سرپایی مراجعه­کننده به مراکز بالینی و بیمارستان­های فجر و رازی شهر تبریز در سال 1395  بود. نمونه پژوهش شامل 120 بیمار بود که به صورت در دسترس انتخاب شدند. برای جمع­آوری داده­ها از مقیاس شناخت اجتماعی وستن و آزمون بازشناسی هیجان چهره­ای اکمن و فرایس استفاده شد. یافته­ها: نتایج تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیری نشان داد که از لحاظ شناخت اجتماعی و بازشناسی هیجان چهره­ای بین بیماران مبتلا به اسکیزوفرنی تازه تشخیص و مزمن تفاوت معنی ­داری وجود دارد. به طوریکه که افراد مبتلا به اسکیزوفرنی مزمن در وضعیت بهتری از افراد مبتلا به اسکیزوفرنی تازه تشخیص قرار داشتند. نتیجه­گیری: این یافته­ ها بیان می­کند که نقص در شناخت اجتماعی و بازشناسی هیجان چهره ای بیماران مبتلا به اسکیزوفرنی تازه تشخیص می­تواند با ناتوانی همراه باشد و بر عملکرد اجتماعی و شغلی این بیماران تاثیر داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Social Cognition and Facial Emotion Recognition in Patients with Newly Diagnosed and Chronic Schizophrenia

نویسندگان [English]

  • abbas abolghasemi 1
  • mina taherifard 2
1 Professor of Psychology Group, University of Gilan
2 Ph.D. Student of Psychology, Mohaghegh Ardabili University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to compare social recognition and Facial Emotion Recognition in patients with newly diagnosed and chronic schizophrenia. Method: current study is a causal-comparative study. The statistical population of this study included all patients with hospitalized and outpatient schizophrenia referring to Fajr and Razi clinical centers and hospitals in Tabriz city in 2016. The sample consisted of 120 patients who were selected through available sampling. To collect data, Westen's social cognition scale and Ekman and Fareis's facial emotion recognition test were used. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between social cognition and facial emotion recognition in patients with newly diagnosed and chronic schizophrenia .Individual with chronic schizophrenia was better than newly diagnosed schizophrenia. Conclusion: These findings suggest that deficiencies in social cognition and facial affective recognition in newly diagnosed schizophrenia can be associated with inability and affect their social and occupational functioning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Schizophrenia
  • social cognition
  • Facial Emotion Recognition
- امیری، ا.؛ قاسم­پور، ع. ا.؛ فهیمی، ص.؛ ابوالقاسمی، ع.؛ اکبری، ا.؛ آق، ع. ص. و فخاری، ع. (1391). مقایسه بازشناسی بیان چهره‌ای هیجان در افراد مبتلا به وسواس فکری ـ عملی و افراد بهنجار. ارمغان دانش. ۱۷ (۱)، ۳۰-۳۹.

 - قاسم‌پور، ع. ا.؛ فهیمی، ص.؛ ابوالقاسمی، ع.؛ امیری، ا.؛ اکبری، ا.؛ فخاری، ع. و آق، ع. ص.(1391). مقایسه بازشناسی بیان چهره‌ای هیجان در بیماران مبتلا به افسردگی اساسی و افراد بهنجار. مجله علمی پژوهشی یافته، ۱۴ (۱)، ۹۱-۹۸ .

- موسویان، ا. و هادیان فرد، ح. (1392). مقایسه بازشناسی هیجان چهره در بیماران مبتلا به اسکیزوفرنیا و افراد سالم. اندیشه و رفتار، 7(28)، 47-56.

- همایونی میمندی، م. و هادیان فرد، ح. (1394). مقایسه‌ی عملکرد افراد مبتلا به اسکیزوفرنیا، بستگان سالم درجه اول آنها و افراد بهنجار در بازشناسی حالات هیجان چهره ای. تازه های علوم شناختی، ۱۷(۴)، ۱۳-۲۱.

- Addington, J., Saeedi, H., & Addington, D. (2006). "Facial affect recognition: A mediator between cognitive and social functioning in psychosis?" Schizophrenia Research. 85(1-3),142– 150.

- Adolphs, R. (2001). "The neurobiology of social cognition". Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11 (2), 231- 239.

- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed: DSM-V. Washington, DC: Arlington, VA.

- Altamura, C., Fagiolini, A., Galderisi, S., Rocca, P., & Rossi, A. (2014). "Schizophrenia today: epidemiology, diagnosis, course and models of care". Journal of Psychopathology. 20, 223-243.

- Allen, D. N., Strauss, G. P., Donohue, B., & van Kammen, D. P. (2007). "Factor analytic support for social cognition as a separable cognitive domain in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 93 (1), 325–333.

- Andrade, B., Browne, D., & Tannock, F. (2014). "Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders". Peer Journal. 2(487), 1-16.

- Archer, J., & Andrew, W. (1992). "Face processing in psychiatric conditions". British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 31(1), 45–61.

- Astington, J. W. (2003). Sometimes Necessary, Never Sufficient: False Belief Understanding and Social Competence, In B. Repacholi, & V. Slaughter (Eds.), Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development, (Pp. 13-38). New York: Psychology Press.

- Brittain, P. J., Fytche, D. H., McKendrick, A., & Surguladze, S. (2010). "Backward and forward visual masking in schizophrenia and its relation to global motion and global form perception". Schizophrenia Research. 124(1-3), 134-141.

- Bellack, A. S., Mueser, K. T., Gingerich, S., & Agresta, J. (2004). Social skills training for schizophrenia. (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

- Bilgi, M. M., Taspinar, S., Aksoy, B., Oguz, K., Coburn, K., & Gonul, A. S. (2017). "The relationship between childhood trauma, emotion recognition, and irritability in schizophrenia patients". Psychiatry Research. 251, 90-96.

- Calder, A. J., Lawrence, A. D., & Young,  A. W. (2001). "Neuropsychology of fear and loathing. Nature Reviews". Neuroscience. 2, 352.

- Ciaramidaro, A., Bölte, S., Schlitt, S., Hainz, D., Poustka, F., Weber, B., Freitag, C., & Walter, H. (2018). "Transdiagnostic deviant facial recognition for implicit negative emotion in autism and schizophrenia". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 28(2), 264-275.

- Corrigan, P. W., & Penn, L. (2001). Framing Models of Social Cognition and Schizophrenia. In: P. W. Corrigan & L. Penn (Eds.), Social cognition and schizophrenia (pp. 3-40). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

- Couture, S. M., Penn, D. L., & Roberts, D. L. (2006). "The functional significance of social cognition in schizophrenia: A review". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 32 (1), 44–63.

- Comparelli, A., Corigliano, V., De Carolis, A., Mancinelli, I., Trovini, G., Ottavi, G., & et al. (2013). "Emotion recognition impairment is present early and is stable throughout the course of schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 143(1), 65-9.

- Comparelli, A., Corigliano, V., Lamis, D. A., De Carolis, A., Stampatore, L., De Pisa, E., Girardi, P., & Pompili, M. (2018). "Positive symptoms and social cognition impairment affect severity of suicidal ideation in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 193, 470-471.

- Charernboon, T., &  Patumanond, J.  )2017). "Social cognition in schizophrenia". Mental Illness22 9(1), 7054.

- De Jong, J. J., Hodiamont, P. P. G., & De Gelder, B. (2007). "Modality-specific attention and multisensory integration of emotions in schizophrenia: Reduced regulatory effects". Schizophrenia Research. 122, 136–143.

- Dyck, D. G., Shork, R. A., & Hendryx, M. (2000). "Management of negative symptoms among patients with schizophrenia". Psychiatric Services. 51, 513-519.

- Edwards, J., Jackson, H. J., Pattison, P. E. (2002). "Emotion recognition via facial expression and affective prosody in schizophrenia: A methodological review". Clinical psychology Review. 22,789-832.

- Fett, A. K. J., Viechtbauer, W., Penn, D. L., van Os, J., & Krabbendam, L. (2011). "The relationship between neurocognition and social cognition with functional outcomes in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 35 (3), 573–588.

- Flavell, J. H., & Miller, P. H. (1998). Social cognition. In: D. Kuhn & R. Siegler (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: cognition, perception, and language (Vol. 2., pp. 851-887). New York: Wiley.

- Fiszdon, J. M., Roberts, D. L., & Penn, D. L. (2013). Introduction to social cognitive treatment approaches for schizophrenia. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

- Gur, R. E., McGrath, C., Chan, R. M., Schroeder, L., Turner, T., Turetsky, B. I., Kohler, C., Alsop, D., Maldjian, J., Ragland, J. D., & Gur, R. C. (2002). "An FMRI study of facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia". American Journal of Psychiatry. 159(12), 1992-1999.

- Green, M. F., Leitman, D. I. (2008). "Social cognition in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 34 (4), 670–672.

- Green, M. F., Horan, W. P., & Lee, J. (2015). "Social cognition in schizophrenia". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 6 (10), 620-31.

- Hofer, A., Benecke, C., Edlinger, M., Huber, R., Kemmler, G., Rettenbacher, M. A., & et al. (2009). "Facial emotion recognition and its relationship to symptomatic, subjective, and functional outcomes in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia". European Psychiatry. 24(1), 27–32.

- Horat, S. K.; Favre, G.; Prévot, A.; Ventura, J.; Herrmann, F. R.; Gothueym, I.;  Merlo, M. C. G.; & Missonnier, P. )2018). "Impaired social cognition in schizophrenia during the Ultimatum Game: An EEG study".  Schizophrenia Research. 192, 308-316.

- Horan, W. P.; Green, M. F.; DeGroot, M.; Fiske, A.; Hellemann, G.; Kee, K.; Kern, R. S.;  Lee,  J.; Sergi, M. J.; Subotnik, K. L.;  Sugar, C. A.;  Ventura,  J.; & Nuechterlein, K. H.; (2012). "Social cognition in schizophrenia, part 2: 12-month stability and prediction of functional outcome in first-episode patients". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 38, 865–872.

- Hall, J.; Harris, J.  M.; Sprengelmeyer, R.; Sprengelmeyer, A.; Young,  A. W.; Santos,  I. M.; & et al. (2004). "Social cognition and face processing in schizophrenia". British Journal of Psychiatry. 185, 169–70.

- Hall, J. R.; Carter, J. D.;  & Horgan, T.G.; (2000). Gender differences in the nonverbal communication of emotion. In: Fisher,  A. H. (Ed.), Gender and Emotion: Social Psychological Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/Paris, pp. 97–117.

- Joyal, C. C.; Laakso, M. P.; Tiihonen, J.; Syvalahti, E.; Vilkman, H.; Laakso, A.; Alakare, B.; Rakkolainen, V.; Salokangas, R. K.; & Hietala, J. (2003). "The amygdale and schizophrenia: a volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study in first- episode, neuroleptic- native patients". Biological Psychiatry. 54, 1302-1304.

- Kiss, I.; Fábián, A.; Benedek, G.; & Kéri, S. (2010). "When doors of perception open: visual contrast sensitivity in never-medicated, first-episode schizophrenia". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 119(3), 586-593

- Kanchanatawan, B.; Thika, S.; Anderson, G.; Galecki, P.;  & Maes, M. (2018). "Affective symptoms in schizophrenia are strongly associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, visual memory, attention and social cognition". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 8(3), 168-176.

- Kohler, C. G.; Turner, T. H.; Bilker, W. B.; Brensinger, C. M.; Siegel, S. J.;  & Kanes, S. J. (2003).  "Facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia: Intensity effects and error pattern". American Journal of Psychiatry. 160,1768–74.

- Kohler, C. G.; Turner, T. H.; Bilker, W. B.; Brensinger, C. M.; Siegel, S. J.; & Kanes, S.  J. (2003). "Facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia: Intensity effects and error pattern". American Journal of  Psychiatry. 160,1768–74.

- Kucharska-Pietura, K.; David, A. S.; Masiak, M.; & Phillips, M. L.; (2005). "Perception of facial and vocal affect by people with schizophrenia in early and late stages of illness". British Journal of Psychiatry. 187, 523–528.

- Kurtz, M. M.; Gopal, Su.; John, S.; & Thara, R.(2018). "Cognition, social cognition and functional disability in early-stage schizophrenia: A study from southern India". Psychiatry Research. 265, 231-237.

- Leung, J. S.; Lee, T. M.; & Lee, C. C, (2011). "Facial emotion recognition in Chinese with schizophrenia at early and chronic stages of illness". Psychiatry Research. 190 (2-3), 172-176.

- Mehta, U. M.; Thirthalli, J.; Bhagyavathi, H. D.; Kumar, J. K.; Subbakrishna, D. K.; Gangadhar, B. N.; Eack, S. M.; & Keshavan, M. S. (2014). "Similar and contrasting dimensions of social cognition in schizophrenia and healthy subjects". Schizophrenia Research. 157 (1), 70–77

- Mancuso,  F.; Horan, W. P.; Kern, R. S.; Green, M. F. (2011). "Social cognition in psychosis: Multidimensional structure, clinical correlates, and relationship with functional outcome". Schizophrenia Research. 125 (2), 143–151.

- Mandal, M. K.; Pandey, R.; & Prasad, A. B. (1988).  "Facial expressions of emotions and schizophrenia: A Review". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 24, 399- 412.

- Morrison, R. L.; Bellack, A. S.; Mueser, K. T. (1988). "Deficits in facial- affect recognition and schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 14,67-83.

- Mossaheb, N.; Kaufmann, R. M.; Schlögelhofer, M.;  Aninilkumparambil, T.; Himmelbauer, C.;  Gold, A.;  Zehetmayer, S.;  Hoffmann, H.; Traue,  H. C.; & Aschauer, H.(2018). "The impact of sex differences on odor identification and facial affect recognition in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders". Front Psychiatry. 31(9), 9.

- Meyer, M. B.; & KurtzM, M. (2009). "Elementary neurocognitive function, facial affect recognition and social-skills in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 110,173–179.

- Niu, L.; Matsui, M.; Zhou, S. Y.; Hagino, H.; Takahashi, T.; Yoneyama, E.; Kawasaki, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Seto, H.; Ono, T.; & Kurachi, M. (2004). "Volume reduction of the amygdale in patients with schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance imaging study". Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging, 132(1), 41-51.

- O'Driscoll, C.; Laing, J.; Mason, O. (2014). "Cognitive emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia and dissociation in schizophrenia, a review and meta-analysis". Clinical Psychology Review. 34(6), 482-95.

- Penn, D. L.; Corrigan, P. W.; Bentall, R. P.;  Racenstein, J. M.; & Newman, L.; (1997). "Social cognition in schizophrenia". Psychological Bulletin. 121, 114–132.

- Penn, D.; Combs, D.; & Mohamed, S. (2001). Social Cognition and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia. In: Corrigan P, Penn D, editors. Social Cognition and Schizophrenia 97-121. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

- Penn, D. L.; Combs, D. R.; Ritchie, M.; Francis, J.; Cassisi, J.; Morris, S.; & et al. )2000). "Emotion recognition in schizophrenia: further investigation of generalized versus specific deficit models". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 109(3), 512-6.

- Philips, M. L.; Williams, L.; Senior, C.; Bullmore, E. T.; Brammer, M. J.; Andrew, C.; Williams, S. C.; & David, A. S. (1999). "A differential neural response to threatening and non-threatening negative facial expressions in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenics". Psychiatry Research. 92(1), 11-31.

- Philips, M. L.; Young, A. W.; Scott, S. K.; Calder, A. J.; Andrew, C.; & et al. (1998). "neural responses to facial and vocal expressions of fear and disgust. Proceedings". Biological Sciences. 265(1408), 1809- 1817.

- Pinkham, A. E.; & Penn, D. L. (2006). "Neurocognitive and social cognitive predictors of interpersonal skill in schizophrenia". Psychiatry Research. 143(2), 167–78.

- Reske, M.; Habel, U.; Kellermann, T.; Backes, V.; Jon Shah, N.; von Wilmsdorf, M.; & et al. (2009). "Differential brain activation during facial emotion discrimination in first episode schizophrenia". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 43, 592–599.

- Strauss, G. P.; Jetha, S. S.; Ross, S. A.; Duke, L. A.; Allen, D. N. (2010). "Impaired facial affect labeling and discrimination in patients with deficit syndrome schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research.118(1), 146–53.

- Schneider, F.; Gur, R. C.; Koch, K.; Backes, V.; Amunts, K.; Shah, N. J.; Bilker, W.; Gur, R. E. & Habel, U. (2006). "Impairment in the specificity of emotion processing in schizophrenia". America Journal Psychiatry. 163, 442-447.

- Scott, S. K.; Young, A. W.; Calder, A. J.; Hellawell, D. J.; Aggleton, J. P.; & Johnsons, M. (1997). "impaired auditory recognition of fear and anger following bilateral amygdale lesions". Nature. 385, 254- 257.

- Schmolck, H.; & Squire, L. R. (2001). "impaired perception of facial emotions following bilateral damage to the anterior temporal lobe". Neuropsychology. 15, 30-38.

- Sadock, B. J.; & Sadock, V. A. (2005). Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. (8th. ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

- Salem, J. E.; Kring, A. M.; & Kerr, S. L. (1996). "More evidence for generalized poor performance in facial emotion perception in schizophrenia". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 105, 480–483.

- Silver, H.; Shlomo, N.; Turner, T.; Gur, R. C. (2002).  "Perception of happy and sad facial expressions in chronic schizophrenia: evidence for two evaluative systems". Schizophrenia Research. 55(1–2), 171-7.

- Shaffer, D. R. (2000). Social and personality development (4thed). Wadsworth, Belmont, USA.

- Sachs, G.; Steger-Wuchse, D.; Kryspin-Exner, I.; Gur, R. C.; & Katschnig, H. (2004). "Facial recognition deficits and cognition in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 68(1), 27-35.

- Sergerie, K.; Chochol, C.; & Armony, J. L. (2008). "The role of the amygdala in emotional processing: a quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 32 (4), 811–830.

- Tsui, C. F.; Huang, J.; Lui, S. S.; Au, A. C.; Leung, M. M.; Cheung, E. F.; & et al. (2013). "Facial emotion perception abnormality in patients with early schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 147(2), 230–5.

- Valaparla, V. L.; Nehra, R.; Mehta, U. M.; Thirthalli, J.; & Grover, S. (2017). "Social cognition of patients with schizophrenia across the phases of illness-A longitudinal study".  Schizophrenia Research. 190, 150-159.